Image by Gage Skidmore. Immediately, social media began to opine on the ethics of this. Or was Goldblum raising an important issue about religiously motivated misogyny and homophobia, which liberal societies must be able to address because a failure to do so is, in itself, bigotry?Pseudo-finite dimensions, modularity, and generalisations (...) - M. Bays - Workshop 1 - CEB T1 2018
Goldblum himself gives little indication that he has given great thought to this thorny issue or that he intended to make a strong ethical statement by asking his question. Does that complicate the issue?
This feeds into broader debates about polarisation, identity politics, dominant discourses, power and privilege. However, people who declare Islam to be anti-woman and anti-homosexuality with much justification will need to be wary of generalisation when it comes to Muslim people, whose own values vary considerably, especially in the West, where Muslims include feminists and LGBT activists. A much broader principle applies: individual liberty and the advancement of knowledge and moral progress are best served by normalising a generally positive attitude towards the free exchange of ideas, even uncomfortable ones.
However, freedom of speech also includes the freedom not to hear. You can write a blog about the sexism inherent in the practice of hijab, but you may not accost a hijabi going about her business and insist she defend her choice of headwear. Is this what Jeff Goldblum did? Although he was addressing an individual in a place where she could not easily just walk away, he was responding to a political issue she herself had raised. This brings us to the statement itself. Does Islam, as it is practiced, have tenets that deny the rights of women to autonomy and equality and the rights of LGBT people to exist openly?
Yes, it does. There is considerable evidence of widespread belief that women should be subordinated to men and of the persecution of LGBT people, justified by a strict understanding of sharia law. Islam justifies sexism and homophobic persecution, even though Muslim feminists and LGBT activists exist and oppose this and even though sexism and homophobia are also justified by other religious and political belief systems. If 52 percent of British Muslims think that homosexuality should be illegal, there are grounds for serious concerns for the wellbeing of LGBT youth in Muslim communities, but if you assume that any Muslim you meet wants to ban homosexuality, you will be wrong nearly half of the time.
Jackie Cox, who described herself as not religious and entered a competition for drag queens, is almost certainly not a conservative Muslim who believes in strict gender roles or calls for homosexuals to be prosecuted. Therefore to include Cox in generalisations about Islam-inspired sexism and homophobia is probably unwarranted.
But could she reasonably be described as complicit? In Critical Social Justice circles, the concept of complicity refers to a belief that all members of a group are responsible for perpetuating certain ideas that enable oppression of other groups simply by merit of their existence as identifiable members of said group.
This relies on the belief that ways of understanding the world and talking about it perpetuate oppressive discourses like whiteness and patriarchy. White denials of complicity are particularly widespread in courses that teach about social justice. Not unlike the ordinary German who denied being guilty of complicity with Nazi crimes, white students often conflate complicity with guilt, the guilt that arises from direct causality to harm. Such notions of responsibility support and encourage denials of complicity.
Often white students refuse to even engage with the possibility that they are complicit. We assume here that there is a correlation between the degree to which an individual or group is complicit in a social problem and the degree to which they should take responsibility for addressing it. Complicity, then, can refer to the kind of good old-fashioned group blame based on immutable characteristics that we might have hoped had been banished by consensus in the decades following the civil rights movements.
However, complicity can also be argued to exist much more justifiably. While the majority of us will almost certainly reject the idea that whole demographics should be blamed for the actions of a few of their members when these demographics are categorised by immutable characteristics, few of us doubt that people can be held to be complicit in problems arising from certain systems of thought or ideologies that they themselves have either chosen to adhere to or not chosen to reject.
Compare these two sentences:. They are welcome to consider me complicit in the values associated with left-liberal secular humanism because I chose those values and stand by them.
This is not the case with my race or sex, which are empty of moral significance. To address the problem of racist and sexist views, therefore, the demographics we need to regard as complicit are white supremacists and misogynists, not white people and men. But is Islam like race or like politics?
Finite groups with NR -subgroups or their generalizations
It seems clear that religions are not immutable characteristics but belief systems, which people can adhere to or leave. A liberal atheist named Muhammad is not safe from anti-Muslim bigotry. Nevertheless, somebody who calls herself a Muslim can be held to be complicit in the belief system known as Islam, which includes sexist and homophobic tenets, unless she states that she rejects and opposes those tenets and does not believe that they should be part of Islam. It does mean, however, that if you take part in a drag queen contest in a costume that makes a political statement about the visibility of American Muslims and explicitly verbalise that statement, you might get asked about the misogyny and homophobia.Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve.
We'll do our best to fix them. Check all that apply - Please note that only the first page is available if you have not selected a reading option after clicking "Read Article".
Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you. This paper identifies a certain class of locally supersoluble groups called soluble hall-T groups which contains the soluble T-groups as well as the nilpotent groups.
The main result states that the product of a normal soluble hall-T subgroup and a subnormal locally supersoluble subgroup is always locally supersoluble. Enjoy affordable access to over 18 million articles from more than 15, peer-reviewed journals.
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Read Article. Download PDF. Share Full Text for Free beta. Web of Science. Let us know here.Participants work together in a small group of people, over an extended period. Learning comes through analysis of their own experiences, including feelings, reactions, perceptions, and behavior.
Underlying the T-Group are the following assumptions about the nature of the process which distinguish T-Groups from other more traditional models of learning:. Goals and outcomes of a T-Group can be classified in terms of potential learning concerning individuals, groups, and organizations. Many people report that they try out behavior in the T-Group that they have never tried before.
A Generalization of T-Groups
This experimentation can enlarge their view of their own potential and competence and provide the basis for continuing experimentation. Have an account? Log in. What is a T-Group? A Training-Group, or T-Group, is a type of experience-based learning. Each participant is responsible for their own learning.
What a person learns depends upon their own style, readiness, and the relationship they develop with other members of the group. The staff person's role is to facilitate the examination and understanding of the experience in the group. They help participants to focus on the way the group is working, the style of an individual's participation, or the issues that are facing the group. Most learning is a combination of experience and conceptualization. A major T-Group aim is to provide a setting in which individuals are encouraged to examine their experiences together in enough detail so that valid generalizations can be drawn.
A person is most free to learn when they establish authentic relationships with other people and thereby increases their sense of self-esteem and decreases their defensiveness. In authentic relationships people can be open, honest, and direct with one another so that they are communicating what they are actually feeling rather than masking their feelings. The development of new skills in working with people is maximized as a person examines the basic values underlying the behavior, as they acquire appropriate concepts and theory, and as they can practice new behavior and obtain feedback on the degree to which the behavior produces the intended impact.
Goals and Outcomes Goals and outcomes of a T-Group can be classified in terms of potential learning concerning individuals, groups, and organizations. Most T-Group participants gain a picture of the impact that they make on other group members.
A participant can assess the degree to which that impact corresponds with or deviates from their conscious intentions. They can also get a picture of the range of perceptions of any given act. It is important to understand that different people may see the same piece of behavior differently - for example, as supportive or antagonistic, relevant or irrelevant, clear or ambiguous - as it is to understand the impact on any given individual or a specific event.
T-Groups often focus on forces which affect the group, such as the level of commitment and follow-through resulting from different methods of making decisions, the norms controlling the amount of conflict and disagreement that is permitted, and the kinds of data that are gathered. Concepts such as cohesion, power, group maturity, climate, and structure can be examined using the experiences in the group to better understand how much these same forces operate in the back-home situation.
Status, influence, division of labor, and styles of managing conflict are among organizational concepts that may be highlighted by analyzing the events in the T-Group. Subgroups that form can be viewed as analogous to units within an organization. It is then possible to look at the relationships between groups, examining such factors as competitiveness, communications, stereotyping, and understanding.One of the things that can happen in the context of discussing culture is falling into the stereotypes and generalizations of a cultural group or norm.
It is important to recognize the difference and the impact these factors have in cultural interactions. In general, stereotypes Statements and interpretations, usually negative, made about a group of people which limit that group to specific perspectives. Stereotypes, whether deemed positive or negative, place people into boxes and categories and limit them to those specific perspectives.
Similarly, just because you meet a year old who does not know how to use current technology, it does not mean that other individuals in that generation do not know how to use it. By contrast, generalizations Broad statements, either valid or faulty, that are based on facts, experiences, examples, or logic. There are two kinds of generalizations, valid and faulty, and it is your role to determine which generalizations have validity behind them.
Broad characterization of cultural groups can serve as a framework for cultural interactions. For example, Hispanic societies have a high degree of machismo, or, in Middle Eastern cultures, women have a lesser status than men—these types of generalizations are helpful when engaging with people of those cultures.
But in all cultural interactions, culturally intelligent leadership requires you to recognize that generalizations do not apply to everyone within a cultural group. Previous Section. Table of Contents.
Generalisations, Complicity and Jeff Goldblum
Next Section.The scientific inquiry follows on from humans making inferences and generalisations from commonly held understandings. Such inferences and generalisations have led to a wide range of investigations being performed throughout history, culminating in breakthroughs in scientific knowledge.
Many hypotheses, when found to be correct, have generated further inquiry and created the need to develop new technologies for further observation.
Observations are what we make using our senses. However, these can be enhanced using scientific tools such as a telescope or microscope.
When we make an observation, we usually use these observations to make an inference. Effective science practice acknowledges this and aims to build inferences with effective and valid experimental methods that lead to factual conclusions.
Observations and inferences simple definition and explanation. A great research article about the role collaboration has in science.
Skip to content. Ensure that you also utilise the Working Scientifically page for extra resources Introduction The scientific inquiry follows on from humans making inferences and generalisations from commonly held understandings. Observations and Inferences Inquiry question 1: What inferences can be drawn from observations? The behaviour of unstable isotopes the behaviour of unstable isotopes Patterns of Nuclear stability radioactive decay of carbon with a video tutorial Examine the human tendency to observe patterns and misinterpret information, for example: Pareidolia optical illusions Discuss how the tendency to recognise patterns, even when they may not exist, can lead to misinterpretation of data discuss the role and significance of outliers in data Developing Inquiry Questions Inquiry question 4: How can hypotheses and assumptions be tested?
Gather secondary-sourced data describing historical instances of long-standing assumptions that have been updated by scientific investigation, including but not limited to: 1. What goes up must come down.
What is gravity? Use appropriate representations to analyse the data gathered from the investigation Generalisations in Science Inquiry question 5: What generalisations and assumptions are made from observed data? The periodic table periodic table The race to find even more new elements to add to the periodic table c Bioastronomy study of bioastronomy A TED talk. Using a growing array of radio telescopes, she and her team listen for patterns that may be a sign of intelligence elsewhere in the universe.
Where does life on Earth originate? A TED talk. His work demonstrates how life might have first occurred on Earth … and perhaps elsewhere too.
Note di Matematica
Is feynmanium the last element that could exist? Is the universe expanding? The telescope that might show us the beginning of the universe. When and how did the universe begin? A global group of astronomers wants to answer that question by peering as far back in time as a large new telescope will let us see. The following articles offer differing perspectives to facilitate discussion.
This justified in the eyes of white invaders the conquering of Aboriginal people, resulting in the breaking down of traditional social, political and economic structure: cultural and physical genocide.Extended Encyclopedia Entries in C. Bennett, Ph. Intercultural Development Research Institute. A cultural generalization is a statement about a group of people. For instance, saying that US Americans tend to be more individualistic compared to many other cultural groups is an accurate generalization about that group.
A cultural generalization may become a stereotype if it is definitively applied to individual members of the group.
For instance, it would be stereotyping a particular person to assume that he or she must be individualistic by virtue of being a US American. As it is used in the context of intercultural communication, a cultural stereotype is a rigid description of a group all people of Group X are like this or, alternatively stated, it is the rigid application of a generalization to every person in the group you are a member of X, therefore you must fit the general qualities of X.
Stereotypes can be avoided to some extent by using cultural generalizations as only tentative hypotheses about how an individual member of a group might behave. We cannot and should not avoid making cultural generalizations. Generalizations are an inherent part of human perception.
Every describable object of perception has been assigned to a category that associates it with other assumedly similar objects and contrasts it with other assumedly different objects. For instance, horses may be assigned to the category of domesticated work animals, similar to oxen and camels, but different than pets such as cats and parrots. Horses may also or alternatively belong to the category of food animals along with cows and goats in contrast to the category of competitive animals such as roosters and dogs.
But like horses, people could be assigned to different cultural categories depending on what criteria are used for comparing them to other groups. To deny that variation — to assume that every individual is a static representative of a single group — is the essence of stereotyping. This process either generates groups based on similar patterns of criteria, or it describes the patterns that exist within a group based on other criteria, such as national boundaries.
If the generalization rests on too small a sample, it may describe some unusual quality that is not represented widely in the group as a whole. It is when generalizations — accurate or inaccurate — are rigidly applied to individuals that they become stereotypes.
For the purpose of making cultural generalizations that are useful for analyzing interaction, it is important to define what level of analysis we are using in observing human behavior. Culture in the sense it is used in intercultural work refers to a group level of analysis, where the concern is with the prevalence of defined qualities such as values or styles within defined groups such as a national societies, ethnic groups, geopolitical regions, etc.
See section on Intercultural Communication By. It is generally. Following this assumption, we cannot say that one culture has more of a personality trait like extroversion than another, and similarly we certainly cannot say that one cultural group is less intelligent than another.
It is important for intercultural work to not confuse these two levels of analysis. If, for instance. However, we could also analyze the conflict at a group level of analysis, looking for differences in cultural worldview such as communication style, nonverbal expression, or cultural values e. Since much of popular and even academic lore regarding communication is posed in psychological terms at the individual level of analysisit takes a conscious effort to maintain focus on worldview issues at the group level of analysis.
Events can be analyzed at this level by understanding how institutions channel human behavior into certain interaction patterns. For instance, the conflict mentioned earlier might be approached usefully by analyzing status and power relationships of the participants or by understanding their possibly different allegiances to competing organizations.
Some forms of cultural studies combine the institutional and individual levels of analysis, seeking to position individuals in social organizations in terms of power, privilege, and oppression.
A wide range of behavior e. Institutions such as political and economic structures, architecture, literature, etc.Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve. We'll do our best to fix them. Check all that apply - Please note that only the first page is available if you have not selected a reading option after clicking "Read Article".
Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you. In this article we characterize the class of finite solvable groups in which every subnormal subgroup is normal in terms of NR -subgroups. We also give similar characterizations of the classes of finite solvable groups in which every subnormal subgroup is permutable or s -permutable.
Moreover we provide some sufficient conditions for the supersolvability and p -nilpotency of finite groups. Journal of Group Theory — de Gruyter. Enjoy affordable access to over 18 million articles from more than 15, peer-reviewed journals. Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15, scientific journals. See the journals in your area. Continue with Facebook. Sign up with Google. Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
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